**You cannot feed the hungry on statistics.**

The 146th day of the year; 146 is 222 in base eight. *What's So Special About This Number

Jim Wilder@wilderlab pointed out that the sum of the divisors of 146; 1+2+73+146 also equals 222.

Finding value of 222 (or other numbers) in base n is nice introduction to polynomials, and (IMHO) leads students to understand polynomials (and base 10) much better.

The decimal expansion of 1/293 has a period of 146 digits.

The concatenation of 146 and 137, 146137 = 317 x 461, both prime. Notice that the same six digits in the product are in the factors, a vampire number. This is the second smallest vampire number with prime factors. (the digits need not be in order, 1260 = 21 × 60 is also a Vampire number.

146 is a number n, for which n^{2}+1 is prime. Goldbach conjectured that any number in this sequence could be written as the sum of two other numbers in the sequence. For 146, one such solution is 146 = 20 + 126 *OEIS

The absolute difference between any two digits of 146 is prime. *Prime Curios, For how many three digit numbers is this true?

Another nice palindrome from Das Ambigram, 146 = 2x5x7+3+3+7x5x2

If you roll two pairs of standard fair dice, the number of ways that both pair can turn out with equal face value showing is 146 out of 1296. The numerator for getting any of the numbers 2 through 12, is an interesting sequence, 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 + 25 + 16 + 9 + 4 + 1.... Guess you could say all fair and SQUARE.

146 is Roman Numerals uses all the symbols below 500, CXLVI once each.

**EVENTS**

**1676** Antonie van Leeuwenhoek applied his hobby of making microscopes from his own handmade lenses to observe some water running off a roof during a heavy rainstorm. He finds that it contains, in his words, "very little animalcules." The life he has found in the runoff water is not present in pure rainwater. This was a fundamental discovery, for it showed that the bacteria and one-celled animals did not fall from the sky. When a ball of molten glass is inflated like a balloon, a small droplet of the hot fluid collects at the very bottom the bubble. Leeuwenhoek used these droplets as microscope lenses to view the animalcules. Despite their crude nature, those early lenses enabled Leeuwenhoek to describe an amazing world of microscopic life. * TIS Compound microscopes (that is, microscopes using more than one lens) had been invented around 1595, nearly forty years before Leeuwenhoek was born. Several of Leeuwenhoek's predecessors and contemporaries, notably Robert Hooke in England and Jan Swammerdam in the Netherlands, had built compound microscopes and were making important discoveries with them. These were much more similar to the microscopes in use today. Thus, although Leeuwenhoek is sometimes called "the inventor of the microscope," he was no such thing.

**1796** Gauss writes to his counselor, Zimmerman, who had apparently encouraged Gauss to publish the results of his studies on construction of the 17-gon, and the quadratic reciprocity law. Guass wrote that he was prepared to undertake the project, but preferred to write it in German before doing so in Latin where he feared he would be subject to criticism "from another side."

"Since I have an Euler and a Lagrange as predecessors I shall have to marshall great diligence for the composition itself."

*Uta Merzbach, An Early Version of Guass' Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Mathematical Perspectives, 1981

**1896** The Dow Jones Industrial Average was created by Charles Dow and Edward Jones, New York financial reporters. Originally consisted of 11 stocks. They published The Customers Appreciation Letter, which would become the Wall Street Journal. The first index published was on July 3, 1884 *Kane, Famous First Facts

**1901 **Giuseppe Peano terminated his services to the Royal Military Academy in Turin where he had taught for ﬁfteen years. The trouble was with his teaching. Earlier he was a very good teacher and the author of several excellent texts, but as his work in mathematical logic matured he devoted too much time to what the students called “the symbols.” [H. C. Kennedy, Peano,p. 100] *VFR

**1906** German airship designer August von Parseval succeeded launching his new airship at Berlin Tegel military field. In contrast to his rival Zepellin, Parseval’s airships were non-rigid or semi-rigid airships. @SciHiBlog

An airship is any powered, steerable aircraft that it is inflated with a gas that is lighter than air.

“Airship” and “dirigible” are synonyms; a dirigible is any lighter-than-air craft that is powered and steerable, as opposed to free floating like a balloon. The word “dirigible” is often associated with rigid airships but the term does not come from the word “rigid” but from the French verb diriger (“to steer”). Dirigibles include rigid airships (like the Hindenburg), semi-rigid airships (like the Zeppelin NT), and blimps (like the Goodyear blimp).*Airships net

**1930 **Name for newly discovered planet Pluto announced by United Press. The name had been the suggestion of an English 11 year old girl to her grandfather, a former librarian at the Bodleian Library in Oxford. (see March 14, 1930). I think the fact that PL abbreviation for Pluto (and Percevil Lowell) influenced the folks at the Flagstaff observatory.

**2002** The minor planet 28242 was named after the Mongolian Mathematician Minggatu ( Sharabiin Myangat)as 28242 Mingantu.He was an astronomer, mathematician, and topographic scientist at the Qing court. His courtesy name was Jing An. He was the first person in China who calculated infinite series and obtained more than 10 formulae. In the 1730s, he first established and used what was later to be known as Catalan numbers. The Jesuit missionaries' influence, particularly Pierre Jartoux, can be seen by many traces of European mathematics in his works. *Wik

===============================================**2021** A renowned astrophysicist and investigator into one of science’s great unsolved mysteries has become the first woman to be appointed as Astronomer Royal for Scotland.

Professor Catherine Heymans, a world-leading expert on the physics of the so-called dark universe, has been awarded the prestigious title, which dates back almost 200 years.

Heymans was recommended to the Queen for the role by an international panel, convened by the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

**BIRTHS**

**1623 Sir William Petty FRS** (26 May 1623 – 16 December 1687) was an English economist, scientist and philosopher. He first became prominent serving Oliver Cromwell and Commonwealth in Ireland. He developed efficient methods to survey the land that was to be confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers. He also managed to remain prominent under King Charles II and King James II, as did many others who had served Cromwell.

He was Member of the Parliament of England briefly and was also a scientist, inventor, and entrepreneur, and was a charter member of the Royal Society. It is for his theories on economics and his methods of political arithmetic that he is best remembered, however, and to him is attributed the philosophy of 'laissez-faire' in relation to government activity. He was knighted in 1661. He was the great-grandfather of Prime Minister William Petty Fitzmaurice, 2nd Earl of Shelburne and 1st Marquess of Lansdowne.

Petty was a founder member of The Royal Society. He was born and buried in Romsey, and was a friend of Samuel Pepys.

He is best known for economic history and statistic writings, pre-Adam Smith. Of particular interest were Petty's forays into statistical analysis. Petty's work in political arithmetic, along with the work of John Graunt, laid the foundation for modern census techniques. Moreover, this work in statistical analysis, when further expanded by writers like Josiah Child documented some of the first expositions of modern insurance. Vernon Louis Parrington notes him as an early expositor of the labour theory of value as discussed in Treatise of Taxes in 1692.

Petty was knighted in 1661 by Charles II and returned to Ireland in 1666, where he remained for most of the next twenty years. *Wik

**1667 Abraham De Moivre **(26 May 1667 in Vitry-le-François, Champagne, France – 27 November 1754 in London, England) French mathematician who was a pioneer in the development of analytic trigonometry and in the theory of probability. He published *The Doctrine of Chance* in 1718. The definition of statistical independence appears in this book together with many problems with dice and other games. He also investigated mortality statistics and the foundation of the theory of annuities. He died in poverty, and correctly predicted the day of his own death. He found that he was sleeping 15 minutes longer each night and from this the arithmetic progression, calculated that he would die on the day that he slept for 24 hours. *TIS

Born in Vitry-le-Fran¸cois, France. Being a Protestant, he emigrated to England following the Edict of Nantes in 1685 where he eked out a living as a tutor of mathematics. He became thoroughly Anglicized and pronounced his name “Mowve-re.” *VFR

In *Miscellanea Analytica* (1730) appears Stirling's formula (wrongly attributed to Stirling) which de Moivre used in 1733 to derive the normal curve as an approximation to the binomial. In the second edition of the book in 1738 de Moivre gives credit to Stirling for an improvement to the formula. De Moivre is also remembered for his formula for (cos *x* + *i* sin *x*)^{n} which took trigonometry into analysis.

1750 **William Morgan**, FRS (26 May 1750– 4 May 1833) was a Welsh physician, physicist and statistician, who is considered the father of modern actuarial science. *Wik

**1826 Richard Christopher Carrington** (26 May 1826 – 27 November 1875) English astronomer who was the first to map the motions of sunspots and thus discover from them that the Sun rotates faster at the equator than near the poles (equatorial acceleration). He observed that the sunspots were not attached to any solid object, and also discovered the movement of sunspot zones toward the Sun's equator as the solar cycle progresses. On 1 Sep 1859, Carrington was the first to record the observation of a solar flare. *TIS

**1837 Washington Augustus Roebling ** (May 26, 1837 – July 21, 1926) U.S. civil engineer under whose direction the Brooklyn Bridge, New York City, was completed in 1883. The bridge was designed by Roebling with his father, John Augustus Roebling, from whom he had gained experience building wire-rope suspension bridges. Upon his father's death, he superintended the building of the Brooklyn Bridge (1869-83). He was disabled by decompression sickness after entering a caisson in 1872. He was brought out nearly insensible and his life was saved with difficulty. Because of resulting poor health, he directed operations from his home in Brooklyn overlooking the site. Though he continued to head the family's wire-rope manufacturing business for several years, medical problems forced retirement (1888).*TIS

*Artists' conception, by Currier and Ives, of the bridge while construction was underway, 1872 |

**1899 Otto Neugebauer**(May 26, 1899 – February 19, 1990) historian of ancient and medieval mathematics and astronomy. *VFR

He was an Austrian-American mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages. By studying clay tablets he discovered that the ancient Babylonians knew much more about mathematics and astronomy than had been previously realized. The National Academy of Sciences has called Neugebauer "the most original and productive scholar of the history of the exact sciences, perhaps of the history of science, of our age." *Wik

**DEATHS**

**735 Bede**( 672/673 – 26 May 735),(often know as the Venerable Bede) Anglo-Saxon theologian, historian and scholar whose writings established the use of BC and AD with dates. He applied a knowledge of astronomy for the purpose of calculating the correct date for Easter. He found that due to an imperfection in Sosigenes' Julian calendar, that the vernal equinox had slipped to a point three days before the traditional date of 21 Mar. However, no action was taken to make the necessary adjustment in the number of leap years per millenium until nine centuries later. Bede held that the earth was a sphere. He preserved Pytheas' suggestion relating tides to the phases of the moon, and followed Seleucus' idea that a high tide is a local effect and does not occur everywhere at the same point in time. *TIS

Translated from the Latin, this means 'In this tomb are the bones of the Venerable Bede' *Religion FactsHAC SUNT IN FOSSA BEDAE VENERABILIS OSSA

**1838 Ernest Gaston Joseph Solvay **(16 April 1838 – 26 May 1922) was a Belgian chemist, industrialist and philanthropist.

Belgian industrial chemist who invented the Solvay Process (1863), a commercially viable ammonia-soda process for producing soda ash (sodium carbonate), widely used in the manufacture of such products as glass and soap. Although a half-century before, A.J. Fresnel had shown (1811) that sodium bicarbonate could be precipitated from a salt solution containing ammonium bicarbonate, many engineering obstacles had to be overcome. Solvay's successful design used an 80 foot tall high-efficiency carbonating tower in which ammoniated brine trickled down from above and carbon dioxide rose from the bottom. Plates and bubble caps helped create a larger surface over which the two could react forming sodium bicarbonate. *TIS

In 1911, he began a series of important conferences in physics, known as the Solvay Conferences, whose participants included Max Planck, Ernest Rutherford, Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Henri Poincaré, and (then only 32 years old) Albert Einstein. A later conference would include Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Erwin Schrödinger.*Wik

The portrait of participants to the first Solvay Conference in 1911. Ernest Solvay is the third seated from the left. Solvay was not present at the time the photo was taken, so his photo was cut and pasted onto this one for the official release.

**1926 Frank Nelson Cole**(September 20, 1861 – May 26, 1926) At the time of his death he was a professor of mathematics at Columbia, but was living in a boarding house, under an assumed name, claiming to be a bookkeeper. The AMS Cole prize in algebra is named after him.*VFR

^{67}- 1 and he did this using quadratic remainders. In fact

2^{67}- 1 = 147573952589676412927 = 761838257287 × 193707721

*The linear functions of a complex variable*in the

*Annals of Mathematics*in 1890 then, between the years 1891 to 1893, he found the complete list of simple groups with orders between 200 and 600. Another publication worth mentioning is

*The triad systems of thirteen letters*which he published in the

*Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*in 1913.*Wik According to a notice in the American Mathematical Monthly, which he had edited for twenty-five years, he died of a heart attack brought on by an infected tooth.

**2003 Gerald Stanley Hawkins**( April 28, 1928 Gt. Yarmouth, Norfolkshire, U.K. - May 26, 2003) was a British-born American radio-astronomer who used a computer to show that the stones and other archaeological features at Stonehenge formed a pattern of alignments with 12 major lunar and solar events, suggesting that it was used as a sort of neolithic observatory or astronomical calendar. In the 18th century, William Stukely had noticed that the horseshoe of trilithons and 19 bluestones opened up in the direction of the midsummer sunrise. In the 1960s, Hawkins, a British-born radio astronomer, identified 165 key points in the neolithic complex and found that many were strongly correlated with the rising and setting positions of the sun and moon over an 18.6-year cycle. In the 1990s, he studied the geometry of crop circles. He retired to a Virginia farm in Rappahannock County with his second wife, Julia Dobson, and died there, suddenly, on May 26, 2003.

Credits :

*CHM=Computer History Museum

*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts

*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar

*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie

*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History

*TIA = Today in Astronomy

*TIS= Today in Science History

*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA

*Wik = Wikipedia

*WM = Women of Mathematics, Grinstein & Campbell

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