## Saturday 3 August 2024

### On This Day in Math - August 3

 1935 Little Orphan Annie Decoder

There are surely worse things than being wrong,
and being dull and pedantic are surely among them.

Mark Kac

The 215th day of the year;   There are 215 sequences of four (not necessarily distinct) integers, counting permutations of order as distinct, such that the sum of their reciprocals is 1. Obviously, one of them is 1/4+1/4+1/4+1/4=1. How many can you find?
How many solutions with four distinct integers, not counting permutations?

215[10] = 555[6]

Every multiple of 5 greater than 30 is expressible as the difference of the squares of two numbers that differ by 5.  (Nice algebra problem for younger students.)  215 = 24^2 - 19^2.

215 in base six is a repdigit, 215[10] = 555[6]

Lagrange's theorem tells us that each positive integer can be written as a sum of four squares, but Lagrange allowed the use of zeros, such as 12 + 12 + 12 + 02 =3. Allowing only positive integers, there are 57 year days that are not expressible in less than four squares. 215 is the 34th of these year days that is NOT expressible with less than four positive squares. 215 = 12 + 32 + 62 + 132.
The last such number was 207, the next is 220.
You can create more on your own. Take any number in the sequence and multiply it by an odd number and you have another that is in the sequence.

In 1937 Lothar Collatz conjectured the process of starting with any number and repeatedly multiplying by 3n+1 if odd, or dividing by two if even in iteration will always lead to one. I mention that here because if you start with 215, it will take 101 operations (a prime number) before you get back to one.

215 = (3!)^3-1 *Wik

215 is the second (and last) yearday that N^2 - 17 is a square. The next such number is over 4000, but can you find the smaller?

All twin primes after 3 are of the form 6n-1 and 6n+1. A pair of twin primes are formed by 6(215)+1 and 6(215)-1
A nice foot note to this fact is that the 215th and 216 primes are twin primes.

215 is the sum of discrete factorials, 8! + 7! + 6! + 5! + 4! + 1!.

EVENTS

431 BC Oldest European record of a verifiable solar eclipse (annular), by the Greek historian Thucydides. *NSEC

1492 Old School mneumonic "In fourteen hundred ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue." Columbus set out from Palos de la Frontera, Spain, on this day. I always reminded my students of the perils of memorization with the line:
"In Fourteen hundred ninety-three, Columbus sailed the deep blue sea" *PB

1596 David Fabricus (also spelled Fabricius) of Germany discovered that the star Mira varied in brightness. In 1638 Johann Holwarda of Germany determined its period, and Mira, from the Latin word for wonderful or astonishing, became the first periodic variable star discovered. However, a few stars of variable brightness were discovered earlier by Chinese and Korean astronomers, who mistakenly identified them as novae.*Access Science

A nice piece on Fabricius life and unusual death are at the Renaissance Mathematicus.

This graph shows how Mira’s brightness has changed over the past 10 years

1747 Diderot and d’Alembert replace de Gua, who had earlier done much to systematize analytic geometry, as director of the publishing project which was to become the celebrated Encyclop´edie*VFR

1750 The ﬁrst (U.S.) teaching methods book was completed by Christopher Dock. It was originally written in German and was printed twenty years later in Germantown, Pennsylvania. The pref­ace was dated March 27, 1770. The full title was: “Schul-ordnung; or A Simple and Thoroughly Prepared School-Management clearly setting forth not only in what manner children may best be taught the branches usually given at school, but also how they may be well instructed in the knowledge of godliness.” *VFR

His legacy lives on in the Christopher Dock Mennonite High School in Kulpsville, Pennsylvania which bears his name.

1823 German chemist Johann Dobereiner discovered the role of platinum (Pt) as a catalyst. He realized that a platinum (Pt) sponge could cause the ignition of hydrogen (H) at room temperature by lowering the activation energy. This effect was the precursor to the theory of catalysis, but it was not until 1835 that the term “catalyst” was coined by Swedish chemist Jacob Berzelius. *rsc.org  He is also known for work that was suggestive of the periodic law for the chemical elements, and for inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Döbereiner's lamp.[ He became a professor of chemistry and pharmacy for the University of Jena.*Wik

Döbereiner's lamp, also called a "tinderbox" ("Feuerzeug"), is a lighter invented in by him. The lighter is based on the Fürstenberger lighter (invented in Basel in 1780; in which hydrogen gas is ignited by an electrostatically generated spark).

1823  Abel dated a letter to his friend Holmboe “Copenhague, l’an (cube root) 6064321219 (en comptant lafraction d´ecimal).” Can you make sense of this? The year is immediate, but how do you get the date?

1872 Charles A. Young (US) observes a flare on the Sun with a spectroscope; he calls attention to its coincidence with a magnetic storm on Earth. *NSEC

The Star-Spectroscope of the Lick Observatory in 1898. Designed by James Keeler and constructed by John Brashear.

In 1903, Thomas Edison's opinion of radium was quoted within an article in the New York World newspaper. "I have had several pieces of it from Mme. Curie in Paris, and I have experimented with it. I do not see its commercial utility, but it opens up a great field of thought and scientific research. It overturns all the old theories of force and energy... I have a peculiar theory about radium, and I believe it is the correct one. I believe that there is some mysterious ray pervading the universe that is fluorescing to it. In other words, that all its energy is not self-constructed but that there is a mysterious something in the atmosphere that scientists have not found that is drawing out those infinitesimal atoms and distributing them forcefully and indestructibly."

1914  In the final hours of peace, Karl Pearson rushed back from the continent.  "I at once put the whole laboratory (Biometrics Laboratory)  staff at the service of any Government department that was in need of computing or statistical aide."  The Laboratory at that time consisted of ten human computers, six women and four men. *When Computers were Human

1921 The first crop dusting from an airplane was demonstrated by pilot Lt. John A. Macready who spread lead arsenate insecticide dust over a six acre catalpa grove on the farm of Harry A. Carver near Troy, Ohio to kill a serious infestation of Sphinx moth caterpillars. He flew over the target site at 20-35 feet in a Curtiss JN6 with a specially designed hopper fitted to the side of the fuselage to distribute the chemical dust. Two days later, C.R. Nellie, the Cleveland entomologist who had suggested the idea, reported great success in killing the caterpillars.* Macready flew with Lt. Oakley G. Kelly on the first non-stop U.S. transcontinental flight on 2-3 May 1923. Macready established several world records in his career.

1953 In honor of the 7th International Congress of History of Science, which was held in Jerusalem, August 4-11, 1953, Israel issued a stamp picturing Maimonides, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (1135-1204), a Jewish philosopher especially interested in the work of Aristotle. [Scott #74]. *VFR

1958 The First ship to reach the North Pole was the submarine Nautilus, which reached 90 degrees North enroute from Hawaii to the Atlantic Ocean.*VFR In 1958, the USS Nautilus (SSN571), became the first submarine to travel under the geographic North Pole when the ice-pack conditions were favorable. This was the first atomic-powered submarine in the U.S. Navy. Attempts earlier in the year failed due to the ice-pack conditions. The crew created a post office while under the North Pole and canceled their letters with a home-made North Pole Stamp. (The Post Master General later declared it to be a legal post office.) Santa Claus boarded through one of the forward torpedo tubes and complained about the effect on his lawn. *TIS

Nautilus was decommissioned in 1980 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1982. The submarine has been preserved as a museum ship at the Submarine Force Library and Museum in Groton, Connecticut, where the vessel receives around 250,000 visitors per year.

1977 Radio Shack announces TRS-80 computer... This was the first computer I ever owned, and my son and I learned to program together on one.(He has gone on to be quite a capable programmer)
Radio Shack announces its TRS-80 Model I, the company's first personal computer. Equipped with 4KB of RAM, cassette-tape storage, and a built-in BASIC interpreter, the TRS-80 was one of the first mass-marketed personal computer (along with the Commodore PET and Apple II). At a time when most microcomputers came in kit form and appealed to hobbyists, these three computers addressed the average person and were very popular in schools Radio Shack sold more than 200,000 TRS-80 computers.*chm

2018 Italy issues new stamp honoring Maria Gaetana Agnesi. It is one of four stamps honoring Italian women of learning, "Excellencies of the knowledge - Italian female genius"

BIRTHS

1805 William Rowan Hamilton born. The date on his tombstone is 4 August 1805, the confusion being due to the fact that he was born at midnight.*VFR
Sir William Rowan Hamilton (3 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish physicist, astronomer, and mathematician, who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra. His studies of mechanical and optical systems led him to discover new mathematical concepts and techniques. His greatest contribution is perhaps the reformulation of Newtonian mechanics, now called Hamiltonian mechanics. This work has proven central to the modern study of classical field theories such as electromagnetism, and to the development of quantum mechanics. In mathematics, he is perhaps best known as the inventor of quaternions. Hamilton is said to have shown immense talent at a very early age, prompting astronomer Bishop Dr. John Brinkley to remark in 1823 of Hamilton at the age of 18: “This young man, I do not say will be, but is, the first mathematician of his age.”

William Rowan Hamilton's scientific career included the study of geometrical optics, classical mechanics, adaptation of dynamic methods in optical systems, applying quaternion and vector methods to problems in mechanics and in geometry, development of theories of conjugate algebraic couple functions (in which complex numbers are constructed as ordered pairs of real numbers), solvability of polynomial equations and general quintic polynomial solvable by radicals, the analysis on Fluctuating Functions (and the ideas from Fourier analysis), linear operators on quaternions and proving a result for linear operators on the space of quaternions (which is a special case of the general theorem which today is known as the Cayley–Hamilton theorem). Hamilton also invented "Icosian Calculus", which he used to investigate closed edge paths on a dodecahedron that visit each vertex exactly once. *Wik

1811 Elisha Otis (August 3, 1811 – April 8, 1861) American inventor of the automatic safety brake for elevators, which later made high-rise buildings practical. Before this invention, elevators of his time were extremely dangerous. In 1852, he was employed at a New York bed factory. He realized the need for a "safety elevator" to move people and equipment safely to the upper floors of the building. He strikingly demonstrated his solution at the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York in 1854. In front of a large crowd, Otis ascended in his new elevator. He called for the elevator's cable to be cut with an axe, but the elevator platform did not fall. The brake he invented used toothed guiderails in the elevator shaft and a spring-loaded bar that automatically caught in the toothed rail if the elevator car if the cable failed. *TIS

1900  John T. Scopes(August 3, 1900 – October 21, 1970) was a teacher in Dayton, Tennessee  Scopes got a job coaching the high-school football team in Dayton, Tennessee, and like many coaches, he was required to teach some science courses as well.   In May of 1925, a delegation of Dayton town fathers asked Scopes if he would agree to be arrested and put on trial for violating the Butler Act recently passed by the state of Tennessee. The Butler Act forbade the teaching of evolution in Tennessee schools.  Scopes said yes, even though it appears he never actually taught evolution in his classes.  But he did use a textbook that discussed evolution, and that was good enough. The town leaders were hoping that a trial would put Dayton on the map, and that it certainly did.  The details with Scopes were worked out at Robinson’s Drug Store in Dayton, the subject of many historical photos once the trial began (third image).

On May 25, 1925, Scopes was charged with violating the Butler Act, and the result was one of the most famous trials of the entire century, the Scopes Trial.  The prosecuting attorney was Tom Stewart, but he was greatly overshadowed by William Jennings Bryan, who came to town for the occasion as a special prosecutor.  Scopes’ defense attorney was in turn eclipsed by Clarence Darrow, who was present on behalf of the American Civil Liberties Union and who effectively took over Scopes' defense.

The trial began on July 10, 1925, and Scopes played almost no role in its proceedings. Most of the photographs of the trial focus on Darrow or Bryan; our first image, featuring Scopes, is an exception. The most notable occasion of the trial, when Darrow cross-examined Bryan about Biblical literalism (fifth image), did not involve Scopes at all.  The trial concluded on July 21, when Scopes was found guilty of violating the Butler Act and fined 100 dollars The expectation all along had been that Scopes would be convicted, and the intention was to appeal the conviction and put the Butler Act on trial.  But the conviction was overturned by a higher court (only a jury could assess a fine of $100 in Tennessee), and the case was never retried. The Butler Act stood its ground until it was finally repealed in 1967. The name "Scopes" has become as famous as any legal eponym ever, but Scopes himself rather disappeared from the historical record after the trial. He worked as a field geologist for most of his life. He did publish an autobiography in 1967, Center of the Storm: Memoirs of John T. Scopes, which appeared three years before his death in 1970. It is a book we ought to have in the Library, but do not. We shall attempt to remedy this. The textbook that Scopes used (and which Bryan waved around in court on one notable occasion) was Civic Biology, by George Hunter. Published in 1914, it did indeed present the facts of evolution; we see below a page that explains Darwin’s nefarious proposal . Ironically, its use in Tennessee schools was mandated by the state Board of Education, so it was inevitable that the Butler Act and Civic Biology would clash somewhere in Tennessee. It just happened to be in John Scopes’ adopted hometown. Scopes was born to Thomas Scopes and Mary Alva Brown, who lived on a farm in Paducah, Kentucky. He died on October 21, 1970 of cancer in Shreveport, Louisiana at age 70. His body is buried in the town of his birth. 1918 Artemas Martin (August 3, 1835; Steuben County, New York - November 7, 1918; Washington, DC, United States) was a self-educated American mathematician. Martin grew up in Venango County, Pennsylvania. He was home-schooled until the age of 14, when he began studying mathematics at the local school, later moving to the Franklin Select School a few miles away and then to the Franklin Academy, finishing his formal education at age approximately 20. He worked as a farmer, oil driller, and schoolteacher. Martin was a prolific contributor of problems and solutions to mathematical puzzle columns in popular magazines beginning at the age of 18 in the Pittsburgh Almanac and the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post. From 1870 to 1875, he was editor of the "Stairway Department" of Clark's School Visitor, one of the magazines to which he had previously contributed. From 1875 to 1876 Martin moved to the Normal Monthly, where he published 16 articles on diophantine analysis. He subsequently became editor of the Mathematical Visitor in 1877 and of the Mathematical Magazine in 1882. In 1881, he declined an invitation to become a professor of mathematics at the Normal School in Missouri. (This was probably from the work of Prof E B Seitz, who had just been appointed professor at the Missouri Normal School in Kirksville. Martin had contacted Seitz, then a teacher in Greenville, Ohio and had contributed a solution to a difficult problem on averages in the "Stairway" department of the Schoolday Magazine, for which Martin was an editor. They continued to communicate for the rest of Seitz brief life)In 1885, he became the librarian for the Survey Office of the United States Coast Guard, and in 1898 he became a computer in the Division of Tides. In 1877 Martin was given an honorary M.A. from Yale University. In 1882 he was awarded another honorary degree, a Ph.D. from Rutgers University, and his third honorary degree, an LL.D., was given to him in 1885 by Hillsdale College. He was elected to the London Mathematical Society in 1878, the Société Mathématique de France in 1884, the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in 1885, the Philosophical Society of Washington in 1886, the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1890, and the New York Mathematical Society in 1891. He was also a member of the American Mathematical Society, the Circolo Matematico di Palermo, the Mathematical Association of England, and the Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung. He died on November 7, 1918. Martin maintained an extensive mathematical library, now in the collections of American University. *Wik (He was also a very early writer on "pursuit" curves. PB) 1851 George Francis FitzGerald (3 August 1851 – 22 February 1901) Irish physicist whose suggestion of a way to produce waves helped lay a foundation for wireless telegraphy. He also first developed a theory, independently discovered by Hendrik Lorentz, that a material object moving through an electromagnetic field would exhibit a contraction of its length in the direction of motion. This is now known as the Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction, which Einstein used in his own special theory of relativity. He also was first to propose the structure of comets as a head made of large stones, but a tail make of such smaller stones (less than 1-cm diam.) that the pressure of light radiation from the sun could deflect them. FitzGerald also studied electrolysis as well as electromagnetic radiation.*TIS FitzGerald was the nephew of George Johnstone Stoney, the Irish physicist who coined the term "electron". After the particles were discovered by J. J. Thomson and Walter Kaufmann in 1896, FitzGerald was the one to propose calling them electrons. *Wik 1890 Martha Betz Shapley (August 3, 1890 – January 24, 1981) was an American astronomer known for her research on eclipsing binary stars. Shapley was born on August 3, 1890, in Kansas City, Missouri, one of seven children of school music teacher Carl Betz (1854–1898) and his wife. She began her studies at the University of Missouri, where she earned a bachelor's degree in education, a second bachelor's degree, and a master's degree, in 1910, 1911, and 1913, respectively. She became a member of Phi Beta Kappa. She became a high school mathematics teacher in 1912, and soon afterwards began working towards a doctorate in German literature at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania. In 1914, she left the program to marry Harlow Shapley, an astronomer who had been a fellow student with her in Missouri. Shapley moved with her husband to the Mount Wilson Observatory and Harvard College Observatory, and from 1915 through 1927 she continued to publish research on eclipsing binary stars, despite not having any formal academic appointment. This was a topic which her husband had previously studied as a graduate student but had moved on from; Zdeněk Kopal has speculated that (as she was the more talented in mathematics of the two Shapleys) she provided significant anonymous assistance to her husband in his doctoral work. Eventually, the pressure of family life caused her to set aside her work in this area. During World War II, in order to contribute to the war effort, Shapley applied to work for the civil service doing cryptanalysis, a subject she had previously studied, but was unable to find a position doing this in Boston. Instead, she began working with Zdeněk Kopal calculating tables of munitions trajectories. Throughout World War II, Shapley utilized her mathematical prowess to support the war endeavors. For a duration of four years, she dedicated her efforts to calculating firing tables for the Navy and Air Force within the Division of Industrial Cooperation at MIT. After the war, when senator Joseph McCarthy and the House Un-American Activities Committee began investigating her husband for his left-leaning political views, she came under fire as well, and in 1950 after she was discovered to have brought home data from Kopal on eclipsing binary stars she was relieved of her military work and of her security clearance. However, her clearance was restored and she was allowed to resume her work several months later. 1914 Mark Kac (pronounced kahts, Polish: Marek Kac, b. 3 August 1914, Krzemieniec, Russian Empire, now in Ukraine; d. 26 October 1984, California, USA) was a Polish mathematician. His main interest was probability theory. His question, "Can you hear the shape of a drum?" set off research into spectral theory, with the idea of understanding the extent to which the spectrum allows one to read back the geometry. (In the end, the answer was "no", in general.)*Wik 1915 Donald Redfield Griffin (August 3, 1915 – November 7, 2003) was an American professor of zoology at various universities who conducted seminal research in animal behavior, animal navigation, acoustic orientation and sensory biophysics. In 1938, while an undergraduate at Harvard University, he began studying the navigational method of bats, which he identified as animal echolocation in 1944. In The Question of Animal Awareness (1976), he argued that animals are conscious like humans. Griffin was the originator of the concept of mentophobia: the denial of the consciousness of other animals by scientists. *Wik 1926 Maurice Auslander (August 3, 1926 – November 18, 1994) was an American mathematician who worked on commutative algebra and homological algebra. He proved the Auslander–Buchsbaum theorem that regular local rings are factorial, the Auslander–Buchsbaum formula, and introduced Auslander–Reiten theory and Auslander algebras.*Wik 1943 Béla Bollobás FRS (3 August 1943, ) is a Hungarian-born British mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics, including functional analysis, combinatorics, graph theory, and percolation. He was strongly influenced by Paul Erdős from the age of 14. Bollobás has been a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, since 1970; in 1996 he was appointed to the Jabie Hardin Chair of Excellence at the University of Memphis, and in 2005 he was awarded a senior research fellowship at Trinity College.[5] Bollobás has proved results on extremal graph theory, functional analysis, the theory of random graphs, graph polynomials and percolation. For example, with Paul Erdős he proved results about the structure of dense graphs; he was the first to prove detailed results about the phase transition in the evolution of random graphs; he proved that the chromatic number of the random graph on n vertices is asymptotically n/2 log n; with Imre Leader he proved basic discrete isoperimetric inequalities; with Richard Arratia and Gregory Sorkin he constructed the interlace polynomial; with Oliver Riordan he introduced the ribbon polynomial (now called the Bollobás–Riordan polynomial); with Andrew Thomason, József Balogh, Miklós Simonovits, Robert Morris and Noga Alon he studied monotone and hereditary graph properties; with Paul Smith and Andrew Uzzell he introduced and classified random cellular automata with general homogeneous monotone update rules; with József Balogh, Hugo Duminil-Copin and Robert Morris he studied bootstrap percolation; with Oliver Riordan he proved that the critical probability in random Voronoi percolation in the plane is 1/2; and with Svante Janson and Oliver Riordan he introduced a very general model of heterogeneous sparse random graphs. In addition to over 350 research papers on mathematics, Bollobás has written several books, including the research monographs Extremal Graph Theory in 1978, Random Graphs in 1985 and Percolation (with Oliver Riordan) in 2006, the introductory books Modern Graph Theory for undergraduate courses in 1979, Combinatorics and Linear Analysis in 1990, and the collection of problems The Art of Mathematics – Coffee Time in Memphis in 2006, with drawings by Gabriella Bollobás. He has also edited a number of books, including Littlewood's Miscellany. Bollobás's research students have included Keith Ball at Warwick, Graham Brightwell at LSE, Timothy Gowers (who was awarded a Fields Medal in 1998 and is Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics), Imre Leader at the University of Cambridge, Jonathan Partington at Leeds, and Charles Read at Leeds, who died in 2015. DEATHS 1914 Louis Couturat (17 Jan 1868 in Ris-Orangis (near Paris), France - 3 Aug 1914 in Between Ris-Orangis and Melun, France), a logician whose historical researches led to the publication of Leibniz’s logical works in 1903.*VFR Couturat was killed in a car accident, his car being in hit by the car carrying the orders for mobilization of the French army the day World War I broke out. Ironically he was a noted pacifist. *SAU 1917 Georg Frobenius (October 26, 1849 – August 3, 1917) German mathematician who made major contributions to group theory, especially the concept of abstract groups (with Ludwig Stickleberger) and the theory of finite groups of linear substitutions (with Issai Schur), that later found important uses in the theory of finite groups as it applies to quantum mechanics. He also contributed to means of solving linear homogenous differential equations. The fact so many of Frobenius's papers read like present day text-books on the topics which he studied is a clear indication of the importance that his work, in many different areas, has had in shaping the mathematics which is studied today.*TIS 1922 Mathias Lerch​ (20 February 1860, Milínov - 3 August 1922, Schüttenhofen) was an eminent Czech mathematician who published about 250 papers, largely on mathematical analysis and number theory. He studied in Prague and Berlin, and held teaching positions at the Czech Technical Institute in Prague, the University of Fribourg in Switzerland, the Czech Technical Institute in Brno, and Masaryk University in Brno; he was the first mathematics professor at Masaryk University when it was founded in 1920. In 1900, he was awarded the Grand Prize of the French Academy of Sciences for his number-theoretic work. The Lerch zeta-function is named after him as is the Appell–Lerch sum.*Wik 1959 Jakob Nielsen (15 October 1890 in Mjels, Als – 3 August 1959 in Helsingør) was a Danish mathematician known for his work on automorphisms of surfaces. He was born in the village Mjels on the island of Als in North Schleswig, in modern-day Denmark. His mother died when he was 3, and in 1900 he went to live with his aunt and was enrolled in the Realgymnasium. In 1907 he was expelled for being a member of an illicit student club. Nevertheless, he matriculated at the University of Kiel in 1908. Nielsen completed his doctoral dissertation in 1913. Soon thereafter, he was drafted into the German Imperial Navy. He was assigned to coastal defense. In 1915 he was sent to Constantinople as a military adviser to the Turkish Government. After the war, in the spring of 1919, Nielsen married Carola von Pieverling, a German medical doctor. In 1920 Nielsen took a position at the Technical University of Breslau. The next year he published a paper in Mathematisk Tidsskrift in which he proved that any subgroup of a finitely generated free group is free. In 1926 Otto Schreier would generalize this result by removing the condition that the free group be finitely generated; this result is now known as the Nielsen–Schreier theorem. Also in 1921 Nielsen moved to the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Copenhagen, where he would stay until 1925, when he moved to the Technical University in Copenhagen. He also proved the Dehn–Nielsen theorem on mapping class groups. Nielsen was a Plenary Speaker of the ICM in 1936 in Oslo. During World War II some efforts were made to bring Nielsen to the United States as it was feared that he would be assaulted by the Nazis. Nielsen would, in fact, stay in Denmark during the war without being harassed by the Nazis. In 1951 Nielsen became professor of mathematics at the University of Copenhagen, taking the position vacated by the death of Harald Bohr. He resigned this position in 1955 because of his international undertakings, in particular with UNESCO, where he served on the executive board from 1952 to 1958. 2016 Geoffrey Colin Shephard (16 August, 1927, 3 August, 2016) was an outstanding geometer who wrote many interesting and important papers. His books, especially one co-authored with Branko Grünbaum on tilings, have become classics. After a First in Part II of the Mathematical Tripos in 1947 and a special credit in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos in 1948, Shephard remained at Queens' College to study for a Ph.D. under J A Todd. While he was still an undergraduate he wrote an article on reading the sundial which was at Queens' College, originally erected in 1642. The article was published in the Easter 1948 edition of The Dial magazine, dedicated to celebrating the quincentenary of the college. In June 1948 the article was republished as an offprint and made available at the Porters' Lodge for visitors to purchase. On 11 August 1950 he submitted the paper Regular Complex Polytopes to the London Mathematical Society; it was published in the Proceedings in 1952. In 1951, Shephard was appointed to a Lectureship in Mathematics at the University of Birmingham but continued to undertake research advised by Todd. His next paper was Unitary Groups generated by reflections submitted to the Canadian Mathematical Journal on 28 December 1951 and revised on 19 January 1953. In this paper he writes:- I must express my indebtedness to J A Todd and H S M Coxeter for their advice and suggestions in carrying out the investigations described in this paper. I am especially grateful to the former for undertaking the formidable task of checking the abstract definitions. He was awarded a Ph.D. by the University of Cambridge in 1954 for his dissertation Regular Complex Polytopes. In 1967 he became Professor of Pure Mathematics at the University of East Anglia and remained in the chair until he retired in 1984. Soon after going to the University of East Anglia, Shephard began a collaboration with Branko Grünbaum and their first joint paper Convex polytopes was published in the Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society in 1969. This major survey paper covered the advances in the subject in the three years following the publication of Grünbaum's book Convex polytopes (1966). We note that MathSciNet lists 65 joint publications by these two mathematicians. The book that took Shephard and Grünbaum eleven years to produce was Tilings and Patterns (1986). The Publisher quotes from reviews:- "Remarkable ... It will surely remain the unique reference in this area for many years to come," Roger Penrose, Nature; "... an outstanding achievement in mathematical education," Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society; "I am enormously impressed ... Will be the definitive reference on tiling theory for many decades. Not only does the book bring together older results that have not been brought together before, but it contains a wealth of new material ... I know of no comparable book," Martin Gardner. Credits : *CHM=Computer History Museum *FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts *NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar *RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie *SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History *TIA = Today in Astronomy *TIS= Today in Science History *VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA *Wik = Wikipedia *WM = Women of Mathematics, Grinstein & Campbell ## Friday 2 August 2024 ### On This Day in Math - August 2 The whole form of mathematical thinking was created by Euler. It is only with the greatest of difficulty that one is able to follow the writings of any author preceding Euler, because it was not yet known how to let the formulas speak for themselves. This art Euler was the first to teach. Ferdinand Rudio The 214th day of the year; The 11th perfect number 2106 (2107−1) has 214 divisors. Also, 214*412+1 is prime. *Prime Curios 214 is the middle number in a string of three consecutive semiprimes 214 is the last day of the year for which n!!-1 is prime, it is a 205 digit number ending in 25 consecutive nines. (The N!! symbol is often confused with (n!)! in which (3!)! = 6! that it should not be used by teachers. This usage means 214*212*210..*2, and if you wanted every fifth term, you could write n!!!!! which becomes useless at 13, or 43. I much prefer an adjustment of Kramp/ Vandermonde method which I write as $214!_2$ but if you only wanted, say the 214 * 212 * 210 * 208, you could add $214!_{4|2}$ 214 is a junction number (a number that can be written as n + sum of digits of n for at least two different numbers. (197 + 1+ 9 + 7 = 214 and 206 + 2 + 0 + 6 = 214) EVENTS 1133 The last total solar eclipse at Jerusalem took place on August 2, 1133 . The next total solar eclipses will be on August 8, 2241. *NSEC 1641 Frenicle de Bessy proposes a problem to Fermat, Use the fact that 221 = 102 + 112 = 52 + 142 to find the factors of this number. Almost a century later, Euler made extensive use of the method. *Oystein Ore, Number Theory and Its History. 1733 Benjamin Franklin suggest writers could improve their literary style if they learned a little Geometry in The Pennsylvania Gazette, August 2, 1733. "If a Writer would persuade, he should proceed gradually from Things already allow’d, to those from which Assent is yet with-held, and make their Connection manifest. .... Perhaps a Habit of using good Method, cannot be better acquired, than by learning a little Geometry or Algebra. " *Natl. Archives 1784 On this day in 1784, Lazare Carnot received two gold medals and a prize from the Paris Academy of Science for his Éloge de Vauban, the presentation being by the Prince of Condé. At the session of 3 December 1778, the Academy of Sciences, Arts and Belles Lettres of Dijon had proposed the "Éloge du Maréchal Vauban" for the literary competition of 1784. Sébastien, Marquis de Vauban (1633-1707), was considered to have been the leading French engineer whose system of fortifications had, in his day, been considered the best. Vauban was from Burgundy and the Dijon Academy thought he deserved a better éloge than Bernard de Fontenelle had given him in the Paris Academy of Sciences. Carnot, now captain in the Corps du Royal Génie in the garrison at Arras, also from Burgundy, and now an expert on fortifications had entered the Dijon Academy's competition. 1790 The first US National Census began on this day.On March 1, the US Congress had instructed to begin on the first Monday in August. the marshals of the several judicial districts of the United States were required to cause the number of the inhabitants within their respective districts to be taken, omitting Indians not taxed, and distinguishing free persons, including those bound to service for a term of year, from all others. This separation in itself was sufficient to meet all the constitutional requirements of the enumeration, but the act also required the marshals to distinguish the sex and color of free persons and free males of 16 years and upward from those under that age; *The history and growth of the United States census Many people in the US objected to the census as a sin because of a rather difficult section in the bible, (2 Sam. 24 and 1 Chron. 21) where “Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel.” Others argued back that God commanded Moses to take the count of his people (Numbers 1:2) This paper punch card was designed for use in compiling data collected in the 1900 U.S. Census of Population. It includes fields for designating enumeration district, race, sex, age, marital status, number of children, number of children living, place of birth, place of birth of parents, years in the United States, citizenship status, occupation, whether employed, and years of education. In 1870, Tower Subway, the first tube railway in the world, was opened under the River Thames in London, England. Engineer James Henry Greathead used a tunnelling shield he modified from Barlow's design to bore the 6-ft diameter tunnel near the Tower of London. It opened with steam operated lifts and a 12-seat carriage shuttled from end to end by wire rope powered by a steam engine. It was not successful due to low use and frequent breakdowns, and the railway closed within three months (Nov 1870). The tunnel was converted to a foot tunnel with stairs. It was closed in 1894 when the opening of the nearby Tower Bridge made it redundant. The tunnel now holds water mains and fire optic cables.*TIS  *Wik 1876 The dead man's hand is a two-pair poker hand, namely "aces and eights". This card combination gets its name from a legend that it was the five-card-draw hand held by Wild Bill Hickok, when he was murdered on August 2, 1876, in Saloon No. 10 at Deadwood, South Dakota. "Wild Bill" Hickok was shot and killed by a drunken stranger at a poker table in Nuttall & Mann's Saloon No. 10 in Deadwood on August 2, 1876. Hickok had come to the Black Hills to explore the gold fields there, leaving his wife in Cincinnati. High School students should be able to find the probability of getting “the Dead Man’s hand” in a five card hand dealt from a standard 52 card deck. *PB  *Wik 624 Lower Main Street, Deadwood, South Dakota; the location of the original Nuttal & Mann's saloon, where Wild Bill Hickok was killed (although this is not the original building, which burned down). In 1880, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was adopted officially by Parliament. Greenwich had been the national center for time since 1675. GMT was originally set-up to aid naval navigation, but was not was used on land until transportation improved. In the 1840 's with the introduction of the railways there was a need in Britain for a national time system to replace the local time adopted by major towns and cities. (Thony Christie wrote to tell me that Edmund Halley had used Greenwich as 0 degree on a map in 1738) GMT was adopted by the U.S. at noon on 18 Nov 1883 when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. Prior to that there were over 300 local times in the USA. GMT was adopted worldwide on 1 Nov 1884 when the met International Meridian Conference in Washington, DC, USA and 24 time zones created.*TIS "The first printed chart or map known to have used Greenwich as its Prime Meridian was published in 1738. The Bradley Meridian not only defined the Zero of longitude for the first Ordnance Survey map published in 1801, but also remains the Zero Meridian used by the Ordnance Survey today." (This is about six meters west of the line agreed to in 1884 which is defined by the Airy Meridian now visited regularly by thousands (pb)) *The Greenwich Meridian Tourists queuing to take pictures on the line of the historic prime meridian at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.  *Wik 1906 R. D. Carmichael proved that there are no triple perfect odd numbers that are the product of three distinct prime factors in the American Mathematical Monthly. A triple perfect, or $P_3$ , number is a number whose divisors (including the number itself, add up to three times the number. Robert Record recognized that 120 was such a number since the sum of its aliquot parts (divisors less than itself) sum to 240. The investigation of multiply perfect numbers was most active at first among French mathematicians and they used the terms "sous-double" for the triple perfect . *L E Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers. 1932 Carl D. Anderson discovered the positron in 1932, for which he won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936. Anderson did not coin the term positron, but allowed it at the suggestion of the Physical Review journal editor to which he submitted his discovery paper in late 1932 The positron was the first evidence of antimatter and was discovered when Anderson allowed cosmic rays to pass through a cloud chamber and a lead plate. A magnet surrounded this apparatus, causing particles to bend in different directions based on their electric charge. The ion trail left by each positron appeared on the photographic plate with a curvature matching the mass-to-charge ratio of an electron, but in a direction that proved its charge was positive. Anderson wrote in retrospect that the positron could have been discovered earlier based on Chung-Yao Chao 's work, if only it had been followed up. *Wik Cloud chamber photograph by C. D. Anderson of the first positron ever identified. A 6 mm lead plate separates the chamber. The deflection and direction of the particle's ion trail indicate that the particle is a positron.  *wik 1939 Albert Einstein “wrote” President F. D. Roosevelt that “Some recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard ... leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future. ... This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable—though much less certain—that extremely powerful bombs of a new type may be constructed.” The letter, drafted by Fermi, Szilard, and Wigner and seems not to have actually been signed by Einstein until August 10, and was then given to Alexander Sachs, a confident of Roosevelt, who did not deliver it to him until October 30. Roosevelt quickly started the Manhattan Project. Einstein later regretted signing this letter. *(VFR & Brody & Brody); (the letter can be read at Letters of Note) They recognized the process could generate a lot of energy leading to power and possibly weapons. There was also concern the Nazi government of Germany was already searching for an atomic weapon. This letter would accomplish little more than the creation of a "Uranium Committee" with a budget of$6,000 to buy uranium and graphite for experiments.
Sir Fred Soddy's book, The Interpretation of Radium, inspired H G Wells to write The World Set Free in 1914, and he dedicated the novel to Soddy's book. Twenty years later, Wells' book set Leo Szilard to thinking about the possibility of Chain reactions, and how they might be used to create a bomb, leading to his getting a British patent on the idea in 1936. A few years later Szilard encouraged his friend, Albert Einstein , to write a letter to President Roosevelt about the potential for an atomic bomb. The prize-winning science-fiction writer, Frederik Pohl , talks about Szilard's epiphany in Chasing Science (pg 25),
".. we know the exact spot where Leo Szilard got the idea that led to the atomic bomb. There isn't even a plaque to mark it, but it happened in 1938, while he was waiting for a traffic light to change on London's Southampton Row. Szilard had been remembering H. G. Well's old science-fiction novel about atomic power, The World Set Free and had been reading about the nuclear-fission experiment of Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, and the light bulb went on over his head."

1971 At the end of the last EVA of the Apollo 15 mission, Commander David Scott took a few minutes to conduct a classical science experiment in front of the TV camera that had been set up just outside the LM Falcon at the Hadley Rille landing site. recreating the experiment that Galileo may have done in Pisa, he dropped a hammer and a falcon feather from approximately 1.5 Meters, and you may judge the result for your self from the video.

2012 A blue moon month, there was another in July of 2015, and the next was in January, 2018 and then again in March of the same year. *telegraph.co.uk

The next blue moon takes place on 31 August 2023. As this Moon is also a supermoon, it will be a Super Blue Moon.  Supermoon: A Full or New Moon that occurs when the center of the Moon is less than 360,000 kilometers (ca. 223,694 miles) from the center of Earth.

BIRTHS

1754 Pierre-Charles L'Enfant (August 9, 1754 - June 14, 1825 (aged 70))French-born and educated as an architect, L'Enfant came to the U.S. as a French engineer who assisted the American Continental Army in its fight against the British during the American Revolution. Appointed by President Washington in 1791 to design the new federal city, L'Enfant designed the basic plan for Washington, D.C., based on many European cityscapes. L'Enfant was dismissed from his job in 1792 following professional disagreements and personality clashes with the three commissioners appointed by President Washington to oversee the project.*TIS

1820 John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th century physicist. His initial scientific fame arose in the 1850s from his study of diamagnetism. Later he studied thermal radiation, and produced a number of discoveries about processes in the atmosphere. He was the first to prove the "Greenhouse Theory" of the Earth's atmosphere. Tyndall published seventeen books, which brought state-of-the-art 19th century experimental physics to a wider audience. From 1853 to 1887 he was professor of physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London. *Wik

1835 Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was a U.S. scientist and innovator who would have been known to us as the inventor of the telephone if Alexander Graham bell hadn't got to the patent office before him earlier that day, resulting in a famous legal battle. He subsequently joined Western Electric where he designed the telegraph printer, the answer-back call-box of the A.D.T. System, and the needle annunciator, among other inventions. He also goes down in history as the accidental creator of the first electronic musical instrument using his discovery of the basic single note oscillator and design of a simple loudspeaker device.*TIS
It is interesting that Bell died on the date of Gray's birth.

1856 Ferdinand Rudio (2 Aug 1856 in Wiesbaden, Germany - 21 June 1929 in Zürich, Switzerland)worked on group theory, algebra and geometry. He is best remembered for his work in the history of mathematics, in particular he wrote a major article on squaring the circle and he also wrote biographies of mathematicians.
One of his most important contributions to mathematics was editing the collected works of Euler. Rudio proposed the project in 1883 since this was the centenary of Euler's death. He continued to advocate the importance of this project and at the International Congress of Mathematicians at Zurich in 1897 he suggested it would be a suitable memorial for the year 1907 which was the bicentennial of Euler's birth. The project was not approved until 1909, twenty six years after Rudio first proposed it.
Rudio was appointed general editor for the project. He edited two volumes himself and collaborated in the editing of three more. In fact he supervised the production of over 30 volumes in his role as general editor. *SAU

1861 Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray, CIE, FNI, FRASB, FIAS, FCS ( 2 August 1861 – 16 June 1944),   Ray is often referred to as the father of chemistry in India.  Showing great promise in his studies as a young man in Bengal, he was awarded a fellowship to the University of Edinburgh in 1882, where he received his BS and then his PhD in 1887. In a day when organic chemistry was all the rage, he chose to pursue inorganic chemistry, becoming an expert in mineral salts, such as sulfates and nitrites.  He returned to India in 1888 and the next year received a position at the Presidency College in Calcutta.  He was unable to obtain a position in the imperial service because he was Indian, an affront to which he took public offense.  Ray was an ardent Bengali nationalist for his entire life, and unfortunately did not live quite long enough to see that dream become reality.

In 1896, he announced a major discovery of a new compound, mercurous nitrite. It is hard to believe that in a millennia of alchemical and chemical investigations, no one had discovered this particular compound, which was quite stable once one figured out how to make it.  He published the discovery in several papers, including one in the Journal of the Chemical Society of London in 1897 which we have in our collections (second image).  The discovery spawned a novel field of research, allowing Ray to establish a new school of chemistry in India and attract a considerable number of students.  In 1916, he joined the faculty of Calcutta University College of Science, where he established another chemical school.  He retired in 1936 and died in 1944.

Ray was noteworthy for his passion for Indian independence and for his philanthropy.  He lived extremely frugally, needed little money, and beginning in 1921, he donated his entire salary back to the Calcutta Department of Chemistry for research and student support.  His humility and life style were as much a model for his students and contemporaries as was his expertise in inorganic chemistry.  He also had an intense interest in the history of chemistry, and in 1902-08, he published A History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India; we have a later edition in the Library, retitled A History of Hindu Chemistry (1956). We hope to acquire the first edition at some point.

According to the Times of India in 2011, the Royal Society of Chemistry awarded a Chemical Landmark Plaque to Ray in 2011, the first plaque ever given to a chemist outside of Europe. This story has been picked up by all the Wikipedia-style biographies, but there is something odd about it, since Landmark Plaques are given to places, not people, and there is no mention of this on the RSC website.  We hope something about the story is true, since Ray certainly deserves more attention from the West.  In India, he is a scientific hero, as he should be, and he was honored with a special exhibition at the Science Centre in Kolkata in 2011.  We show here some photographs of that event (fourth image).

In India, Ray is always referred to as Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray, Acharya being an honorary title meaning “one who leads by example.”  It would be nice if we had a title for exemplary lifestyle in the West.

*Linda Hall Org

1887 Oskar Johann Viktor Anderson (2 August 1887, Minsk, Belarus – 12 February 1960, Munich, Germany) was a German-Russian mathematician. He was most famously known for his work on mathematical statistics.Anderson was born from a German family in Minsk (now in Belarus), but soon moved to Kazan (Russia), on the edge of Siberia. His father, Nikolai Anderson, was professor in Finno-Ugric languages at the University of Kazan. His older brothers were the folklorist Walter Anderson and the astrophysicist Wilhelm Anderson. Oskar Anderson graduated from Kazan Gymnasium with a gold medal in 1906. After studying mathematics for one year at University of Kazan, he moved to St. Petersburg to study economics at the Polytechnic Institute. From 1907 to 1915, he was Aleksandr Chuprov's assistant. In 1912 he started lecturing at a commercial school in St. Petersburg. In 1918 he took on a professorship in Kiev but he was forced to flee Russia in 1920 due to the Russian Revolution, first taking a post in Budapest (Hungary) before becoming a professor at the University of Economics at Varna (Bulgaria) in 1924. In 1935 he was appointed director of the Statistical Institute for Economic Research at the University of Sofia and in 1942 he took up a full professorship of statistics at the University of Kiel, where he was joined by his brother Walter Anderson after the end of the second world war. In 1947 he took a position at the University of Munich, teaching there until 1956, when he retired.*Wik

1902 Mina Spiegel Rees (2 August 1902 - 25 October 1997) was an American mathematician. She was the first female President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1971) and head of the mathematics department of the Office of Naval Research of the United States. She was valedictorian at Hunter College High School in New York City. She graduated Summa cum Laude with a math major at Hunter College in 1923. She received a masters in mathematics from Columbia University in 1925. At that time she was told unofficially that "the Columbia mathematics department was not really interested in having women candidates for Ph.D's". She started teaching at Hunter College then took a sabbatical to study for the doctorate at the University of Chicago in 1929. She earned her doctorate in 1931 with a thesis on "Division algebras associated with an equation whose group has four generators," published in the American Journal of Mathematics, Vol 54 (Jan. 1932), 51-65. Her advisor was Leonard Dickson. *Wik
She became one of the earliest female computer pioneers. Before her death in 1997, Rees would leave her mark in the worlds of computers, mathematics, and education. Rees graduated with degrees in mathematics from Hunter College and Columbia University and ran the Office of Naval Research (ONR) after , where she organized work on early computers such as the Harvard Mark I. Throughout her career, she made many important contributions to the use of computers in solving applied mathematical problems and was known for her strong administrative skills and influence. *CHM

In 1970, she became the first female president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Rees died on October 25, 1997 at age 95.

1946 Nigel James Hitchin FRS (born 2 August 1946) is a British mathematician working in the fields of differential geometry, gauge theory, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics. He is a Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at the University of Oxford.

In 1997 he was appointed to the Savilian Chair of Geometry at the University of Oxford, a position he held until his retirement in 2016.

Amongst his notable discoveries are the Hitchin–Thorpe inequality; Hitchin's projectively flat connection over Teichmüller space; the Atiyah–Hitchin monopole metric; the Atiyah–Hitchin–Singer theorem; the ADHM construction of instantons (of Michael Atiyah, Vladimir Drinfeld, Hitchin, and Yuri Manin); the hyperkähler quotient (of Hitchin, Anders Karlhede, Ulf Lindström and Martin Roček); Higgs bundles, which arise as solutions to the Hitchin equations, a 2-dimensional reduction of the self-dual Yang–Mills equations; and the Hitchin system, an algebraically completely integrable Hamiltonian system associated to the data of an algebraic curve and a complex reductive group. He and Shoshichi Kobayashi independently conjectured the Kobayashi–Hitchin correspondence. Higgs bundles, which are also developed in the work of Carlos Simpson, are closely related to the Hitchin system, which has an interpretation as a moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles over a compact Riemann surface or algebraic curve. This moduli space has emerged as a focal point for deep connections between algebraic geometry, differential geometry, hyperkähler geometry, mathematical physics, and representation theory.

In 1991 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

In 2003 he was awarded an Honorary Degree (Doctor of Science) from the University of Bath.

Hitchin was elected as an Honorary Fellow of Jesus College in 1998, and the Senior Berwick Prize (1990), the Sylvester Medal (2000) and the Pólya Prize (2002) have been awarded to him in honour of his far-reaching work. A conference was held in honour of his 60th birthday, in conjunction with the 2006 International Congress of Mathematicians in Spain.

In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.[6] In 2014 he was awarded another Honorary Degree (Doctor of Science) from the University of Warwick. In 2016 he received the Shaw Prize in Mathematical Sciences.

1971 Ruth Elke Lawrence-Naimark (2 August 1971, Bristol, UK; ) is an Associate Professor of mathematics at the Einstein Institute of Mathematics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a researcher in knot theory and algebraic topology. Lawrence's 1990 paper, Homological representations of the Hecke algebra, in Communications in Mathematical Physics, introduced, among other things, certain novel linear representations of the braid group — known as Lawrence–Krammer representation. In papers published in 2000 and 2001, Daan Krammer and Stephen Bigelow established the faithfulness of Lawrence's representation. This result goes by the phrase "braid groups are linear." Outside academia, she is best known for being a child prodigy in mathematics. She passed the GCSE in Math at age five, and in 1981 she passed the Oxford University interview entrance examination in mathematics, coming first out of all 530 candidates sitting the examination, and joining St Hugh's College in 1983 at the age of just twelve.*Wik

DEATHS

1823 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Comte Carnot (13 May 1753 – 2 August 1823) died. Carnot is best known as a geometer. In 1803 he published Géométrie de position in which sensed magnitudes were first systematically used in geometry.*Wik

1922 Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) Scottish inventor of the telephone died in Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia. Born in 1847, Bell's career was influenced by his grandfather (who published The Practical Elocutionist and Stammering and Other Impediments of Speech), his father (whose interest was the mechanics and methods of vocal communication) and his mother (who was deaf). As a teenager, Alexander was intrigued by the writings of German physicist Hermann Von Helmholtz, On The Sensations of Tone. At age 23 he moved to Canada. In 1871, Bell began giving instruction in Visible Speech at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes. This background set his course in developing the transmission of voice over wires. *TIS

1962 John Smith graduated from Glasgow University and then stayed on as a lecturer. He taught at Campbeltown Grammar School and Dollar Academy and then became an HM Schools Inspector. *SAU

1976 László Kalmár (March 27, 1905 – August 2, 1976) worked on mathematical logic and theoretical computer science. He was ackowledged as the leader of Hungarian mathematical logic. *SAU

2016 Ahmed Hassan Zewail (February 26, 1946 – August 2, 2016) was an Egyptian-American scientist, known as the "father of femtochemistry". He was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry and became the first Egyptian and the first Arab to win a Nobel Prize in a scientific field. He was the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Physics, and the director of the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at the California Institute of Technology.
Zewail died aged 70 on the evening of August 2, 2016, after a long battle with cancer. *Wik

Credits
*CHM=Computer History Museum
*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts
*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar
*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie
*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History
*TIA = Today in Astronomy
*TIS= Today in Science History
*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA
*Wik = Wikipedia