**[The infinitesimals] neither have nor can have theory; in practise it is a dangerous instrument in the hands of beginners ... anticipating, for my part, the judgement of posterity, I would predict that this method will be accused one day, and rightly, of having retarded the progress of the mathematical sciences.**

~Francois Servois

The 200th day of the year; 200 is the smallest unprimeable number - it can not be turned into a prime number by changing just one of its digits to any other digit. (What would be the next one? {easier}What is the smallest odd unprimeable number? {harder})

Sum of first 200 primes divides product of first 200 primes. (How often is this property true of integers?) *Math Year-Round @MathYearRound

The smallest discernible movement of a computer mouse—equal to 1/200th of an inch—is called a MICKEY. Haggard Hawks @HaggardHawks The actual measure depends on the equipment of course, so, like the meter, it will have to be adjusted from time to time. Many operating systems and mouse configuration software allow users to customize mickey settings, altering the sensitivity to match their specific needs and preferences. This is particularly useful for tasks that demand precise control, such as graphic design or gaming.

And don't forget, When you pass GO, collect $200 (except the lucky Brits, who get 200 Lb.

200 is not a palindrome in any base 2-10, but it is in Roman numerals CC. <br>

Which reminds us that 200 is the sum of two squares, 10^2 + 10^2, but also 14^2 + 2^2,

And as the difference of two squares, 200 = 51^2 - 49^2; 27^2 - 23^2; 15^2 - 5^2

See Here for more Math Facts for every Year Date

**EVENTS**

**418** First report of a comet discovered during a solar eclipse, seen by the historian Philostorgius in Asia Minor. Many chronicles do mention this observation (12 western, 3 Byzantine). Philostorgius mentions that the sun was eclipsed at the 8th hour of the day. In his sketch there is a comet. This Total Solar Eclipse was from the Caribbean, Bay of Bengal, north Spain, central Italy, little Asia and ends in the north of India. *NSEC

Photograph of the Eclipse Comet of 1948 taken on November 13, 1948, taken by V.P. Victor at Harvard Observatory’s southern station in Boyden, South Africa. Courtesy of Harvard University.

**1595** “God in creating the universe and regulating the order of the cosmos had in view the ﬁve regular bodies of geometry as known since the days of Pythagoras and Plato.” So did Kepler record his discovery that the universe was based on the Platonic solids, a conjecture he published in 1596. *VFR "as I was showing in my class how the great conjunctions [of Saturn and Jupiter] occur successively eight zodiacal signs later, and how they gradually pass from one trine to another, that I inscribed within a circle many triangles, or quasi-triangles such that the end of one was the beginning of the next. In this manner a smaller circle was outlined by the points where the line of the triangles crossed each other.

The proportion between the circles struck Kepler’s eye as almost identical with that between Saturn and Jupiter, and he immediately initiated a vain search for similar geometrical relations.

And then again it struck me: why have plane figures among three-dimensional orbits? Behold, reader, the invention and whole substance of this little book! In memory of the event, I am writing down for you the sentence in the words from that moment of conception: The earth’s orbit is the measure of all things; circumscribe around it a dodecahedron, and the circle containing this will be Mars; circumscribe around Mars a tetrahedron, and the circle containing this will be Jupiter; circumscribe around Jupiter a cube, and the circle containing this will be Saturn. Now inscribe within the earth an icosahedron, and the circle contained in it will be Venus; inscribe within Venus an octahedron, and the circle contained in it will be Mercury. You now have the reason for the number of planets.

Kepler of course based his argument on the fact that there are five and only five regular polyhedrons. *encyclopedia.com

Kepler's Platonic solid model of the Solar System, from Mysterium Cosmographicum (1596)

**1676** Flamsteed began living at the Observatory with his two servants on July 10. On 19 July, his long series of Greenwich observations began? *Rebekah Higgitt, Teleskopos

**1799** The Rosetta stone was found by Napoleon’s troops in the Nile delta. It attracted the interest of the learned men with Napoleon, which included several mathematicians, and copies were circulated to scholars. The text is in Greek, hieroglyphics and demotic Egyptian scripts and was deciphered by Thomas Young and Fran¸cois Champollion. The cartouches on the stone, which contained royal names, were the key to decipherment. It is now a prized possession of the British Museum.*VFR

**1819** Poisson submitted a paper on the solution of the wave equation. He used the method of power series, but the techniques advocated by Cauchy and Fourier using complex variables and “Fourier analysis” won out. [Ivor Grattan-Guiness, Convolutions in French Mathematics, 1800–1840, pp. 682, 687ﬀ, 1393] *VFR

**1895** On April 30, George Cantor, first uses Aleph-null in a letter to Felix Klein. Prior to this he had use aleph-one for the first infinite cardinal. The first part of his Bietrage was already in print, so his letter to Klein is added, almost verbatim, to explain the changes with the publication date still showing March of that year. *From the Calculus to Set Theory, 1630-1910: An Introductory History, By I. Grattan-Guinness

*Mathematische Annalen*we find the paragraph

*Die kleinste transfinite Cardinalzahl Alef-null*[The minimum transfinite cardinal number Aleph null], and the following:

...wir nennen die ihr zukommende Cardinalzahl, in Zeichen, ... [We call the cardinal number related to that (set); in symbol, ]

;

**1983**The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head via computed tomography (CT) is published. Michael W. Vannier (Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis) and his co-workers J. Marsh (Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Deformities Institute, St. Louis Children's Hospital) and J. Warren (McDonnell Aircraft Company) published the first three-dimensional reconstruction of single computed tomography (CT) slices of the human head. Computer-aided aircraft design techniques were adapted to make the cranial imaging possible. Since then, CT imaging has become a cornerstone of the medical profession.*CHM

**1767 Francois-Joseph Servois** born (19 July 1768 in Mont-de-Laval (N of Morteau), Doubs, France - 17 April 1847 in Mont-de-Laval, Doubs, France). He worked in projective geometry, functional equations and complex numbers. He introduced the word pole in projective geometry. He also came close to discovering the quaternions before Hamilton.

Servois introduced the terms "commutative" and "distributive" in a paper describing properties of operators, and he also gave some examples of noncommutativity. Although he does not use the concept of a ring explicitly, he does verify that linear commutative operators satisfy the ring axioms. In doing so he showed why operators could be manipulated like algebraic magnitudes. This work initiates the algebraic theory of operators.

Servois was critical of Argand's geometric interpretation of the complex numbers. He wrote to Gergonne telling him so in November 1813 and Gergonne published the letter in the Annales de mathématiques in January 1814. Servois wrote:- I confess that I do not yet see in this notation anything but a geometric mask applied to analytic forms the direct use of which seems to me simple and more expeditious.

Considered as a leading expert by many mathematicians of his day, he was consulted on many occasions by Poncelet while he was writing his book on projective geometry Traité des propriétés projective. *SAU

**1817 Charles Auguste Briot** (July 19, 1817 - September 20, 1882) undertook research on analysis, heat, light and electricity. His first major work on analysis was Recherches sur la théorie des fonctions which he published in the Journal of the École Polytechnique in 1859, and he also published this work as a treatise in the same year. His researches on heat, light and electricity was all based on his theories of the aether. He was strongly influenced in developing these theories by Louis Pasteur, the famous chemist. Of course Pasteur was a great scientist, but Briot had an additional reason to hold him in high esteem for, like himself and his friend Bouquet, Pasteur was brought up in the Doubs region of France.

In 1859 Briot and Bouquet published their important two volume treatise on doubly periodic functions. They published another joint effort in 1875 when their treatise on elliptic functions appeared. In this same year they published a second edition to their two volume work of 1859. In 1879 Briot, this time in a single author work, produced his treatise on abelian functions. The physical motivation for the mathematical theories which gave rise to this work in analysis was published by Briot in 1864 when he published his work on light, Essai sur la théorie mathématique de la lumière and five years later when he published his work on heat, Théorie mécanique de la chaleur.

We noted above that Briot was a dedicated teacher and as such he wrote a great number of textbooks for his students. This was certainly a tradition in France at this time and it was natural for a teacher of Briot's quality to write up his courses as textbooks. He wrote textbooks which covered most of the topics from a mathematics course: arithmetic, algebra, calculus, geometry, analytic geometry, and mechanics. For his outstanding contributions to mathematics the Académie des Sciences in Paris awarded Briot their Poncelet Prize in 1882 shortly before he died. *SAU

**1846 Edward Charles Pickering,** (July 19, 1846–February 3, 1919)was born Boston, Mass., U.S. physicist and astronomer. After graduating from Harvard, he taught physics for ten years at MIT where he built the first instructional physics laboratory in the United States. At age 30, he directed the Harvard College Observatory for 42 years. His observations were assisted by a staff of women, including Annie Jump Cannon. He introduced the use of the meridian photometer to measure the magnitude of stars, and established the Harvard Photometry (1884), the first great photometric catalog. By establishing a station in Peru (1891) to make the southern photographs, he published the first all-sky photographic map (1903).*TIS

**1851 William Edward Wilson,**(19 July 1851 – 6 March 1908) an Irish astronomer, was born July 19, 1851. Wilson inherited a mansion, Daramona House, in Westmeath in central Ireland, and in 1871, he built an observatory next to the home, equipping it with a 12-inch reflector made by Howard Grubb, a noted telescope maker in Dublin. No telescope owner is ever happy with their first telescope – it is always too small – and by 1881, Wilson had traded in the 12-inch reflector for a 24-inch silver-on-glass reflector, and he bought a new mount as well, with an accurate clock drive.** **

Although, as we shall see, the 24-inch Grubb could take phenomenal deep-sky photographs, Wilson was initially interested in astronomical measurement. For example, he and several colleagues used special instruments to measure the temperature of the Sun, and of sunspots. He also measured the light output of stars, using a selenium cell. He was amazed at the power of Betelgeuse in Orion, which has no measurable parallax (meaning it is very far away), but still sends a prodigious amount of light our way. One of his collaborators was George Francis FitzGerald, a professor in Dublin, who would later contribute to the Lorenz-FitzGgerald contractions used to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The results of Wilson's scientific investigations of the Sun and stars were published in a half-dozen papers in the Philosophical Transactions and the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, and the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The Ring Nebula in Lyra, M57, collotype, photo taken Sep. 9, 1894, with the 24-inch Grubb reflector at Daramona, 20 min. exposure, in William E. Wilson, Astronomical and Physical Researches, 1900 (Linda Hall Library)

*Linda Hall Org |

**1894 Aleksandr Yakovlevich Khinchin** (July 19, 1894 – November 18, 1959) was a Russian mathematician who contributed to many fields including number theory and probability. Khinchin's book Mathematical Foundations of Information Theory, translated into English from the original Russian in 1957, is important. It consists of English translations of two articles: The entropy concept in probability theory and On the basic theorems of information theory which were both published earlier in Russian. The second of these articles provides a refinement of Shannon's concepts of the capacity of a noisy channel and the entropy of a source. Khinchin generalised some of Shannon's results in this book which was written in an elementary style yet gave a comprehensive account with full details of all the results.*SAU

**1913 Mary Cannell** (19 July 1913 in Liverpool, England - 18 April 2000) It was the work which she undertook after she retired which earns her a place as a highly respected historian of mathematics. Her work stemmed from the fact that George Green had worked as a miller near Nottingham. Green was a mathematician who was well known to almost all students of mathematics around the world, yet little was known of his life. Flauvel writes:- ... widespread knowledge of Green himself dates only from the 1970s when Cannell and other Nottingham colleagues worked to restore his windmill and his memory...When I first visited Green's windmill in Nottingham the booklet which I purchased was George Green Miller and Mathematician written in 1988 by Mary Cannell. She produced a major biography of Green, George Green : Mathematician and Physicist 1793-1841 : The Background to His Life and Work in 1993. In addition she wrote research articles on Green's life and work bringing to the world of mathematics an understanding of Green's remarkable life.

Flauvel writes:- She charmed audiences on several continents, promoting interest in Green and early 19th-century mathematical physics, in the clear tones and pure vowels of pre-war English, somewhere between Miss Marple and Dame Peggy Ashcroft. ... Mary Cannell was working on projects of one sort or another - the Green website, the revised edition of the biography, research papers, the catalogue in the university of Nottingham library - right to the end, in days filled with her characteristic energy and enthusiasm. *SAU

**1921 Rosalyn Sussman Yalow**

**(July 19, 1921 – May 30, 2011) was an American biophysicist who shared (with Andrew V. Schally and Roger Guillemin) the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, making her the second woman to win the Nobel Prize in medicine, “for the development of radioimmuno assays (RIA) of peptide hormone.” RIA brought about a revolution in biological and medical research. With her coworkers, she applied RIA to study of the physiology of the peptide hormones insulin, ACTH, growth hormone, and also to throw light upon the pathogenesis of diseases caused by abnormal secretion of these hormones. This was pioneering work that opened diabetes research in new directions. She has been called the “Madame Curie of the Bronx..” *TiS**

**DEATHS**

**1878 Egor Ivanovich Zolotarev** (March 31, 1847, Saint Petersburg – July 19, 1878, Saint Petersburg) produced fundamental work on analysis and number theory. *SAU

In 1857 he began to study at the fifth St Petersburg gymnasium, a school which centered on mathematics and natural science. He finished it with the silver medal in 1863. In the same year he was allowed to be an auditor at the physico-mathematical faculty of St Petersburg university.

He had not been able to become a student before 1864 because he was too young. Among his academic teachers were Somov, Chebyshev and Aleksandr Korkin, with whom he would have a tight scientific friendship. In November 1867 he defended his Kandidat thesis “About the Integration of Gyroscope Equations”, after 10 months there followed his thesis pro venia legendi About one question on Minima. With this work he was given the right to teach as a private lecturer at St Petersburg university.

Zolotarev's steep career ended abruptly with his early death. He was on his way to his dacha when he was run over by a train in the Tsarskoe Selo station. On 19 July 1878 he died from blood poisoning.

Yegor Ivanovich is not to be confused with the probabilist Vladimir Mikhaelovich Zolotarev, Kolmogorov's disciple, who worked on stable distributions with well known results on their parametrization.

**1947 John Clark** graduated from Edinburgh University and became a teacher at George Heriot's School in Edinburgh. He went on to become Rector of this school. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1891 and President in 1897. *SAU

**1982 Hugh Everett III** (November 11, 1930 – July 19, 1982) was an American physicist who first proposed the many-worlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum physics, which he termed his "relative state" formulation.

Discouraged by the scorn^{} of other physicists for MWI, Everett ended his physics career after completing his Ph.D. Afterwards, he developed the use of generalized Lagrange multipliers for operations research and applied this commercially as a defense analyst and a consultant. He was married to Nancy Everett née Gore. They had two children: Elizabeth Everett and Mark Oliver Everett, who became frontman of the musical band Eels.

**1992 Allen Newell **(March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology. He contributed to the Information Processing Language (1956) and two of the earliest AI programs, the Logic Theory Machine (1956) and the General Problem Solver (1957) (with Herbert A. Simon). He was awarded the ACM's A.M. Turing Award along with Herbert A. Simon in 1975 for their basic contributions to artificial intelligence and the psychology of human cognition *Wik

Credits

*CHM=Computer History Museum

*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts

*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar

*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie

*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History

*TIA = Today in Astronomy

*TIS= Today in Science History

*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA

*Wik = Wikipedia

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