**One of the most baneful delusions by which the minds, not only of students, but even of many teachers of mathematics in our classical colleges, have been afflicted with is, that mathematics can be mastered by the favored few, but lies beyond the grasp and power of the ordinary mind.**

~Florian Cajori, The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the United States

The 295th day of the year; 295 may be interesting only because it seems to be the least interesting day number of the year. (Willing to be contradicted, send your comments)

[*Here are several of the best I received from David Brooks:*

295 can be partitioned in 6486674127079088 ways.

295 can be partitioned in 6486674127079088 ways.

*]*

295 is a 31-gonal number.

295 is a 31-gonal number.

And Derek Orr pointed out that "295 is the second proposed Lychrel number." A Lychrel number is a natural number that cannot form a palindrome through the iterative process of repeatedly reversing its digits and adding the resulting numbers. This process is sometimes called the 196-algorithm, after the most famous number associated with the process. In base ten, no Lychrel numbers have been yet proved to exist, but many, including 196, are suspected on heuristic and statistical grounds. The name "Lychrel" was coined by Wade Van Landingham as a rough anagram of Cheryl, his girlfriend's first name. (Who else thinks he probably mis-spelled her name and when she called him on it, he came up with the idea of a "rough anagram"? )

**1668**Leibniz writes to the German emperor to request permission to publish a "Nucleus Libareaus". This was the beginnings of the foundation of Acta Eruditorum, the first German scientific journal.

**1685 Abraham De Moivre**was a student of physics at the University, Collège d'Harcourt, in the 1680s. After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, (October 22, 1685 ) he went into seclusion in the priory of St. Martin (possibly that which became the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers ??) and then emigrated to England, having no contact with France until he was elected a Foreign Associate of the Academy of Sciences just before his death.*VFR

**1746**Princeton chartered as the College of New Jersey -- the name by which it was known for 150 years -- Princeton University was British North America's fourth college. Located in Elizabeth for one year and then in Newark for nine, the College of New Jersey moved to Princeton in 1756. It was housed in Nassau Hall, which was newly built on land donated by Nathaniel FitzRandolph. Nassau Hall contained the entire College for nearly half a century. *Princeton Univ web page

**, the first parachute jump was made by André-Jacques Garnerin, released from a balloon 2,230-ft above the Parc Monceau, Paris. He rode in a gondola fixed to the lines of a 23-ft diameter parachute, which was supported by a wooden pole and had its 32 white canvas gores folded like a closed umbrella. Lacking any vent in the top of the parachute, Garnerin descended with violent oscillations, and suffered the first case of airsickness. For his next jump, he added a hole in the top of the parachute. He made his fifth jump on 21 Sep 1802 over London, from a height of 3,000-ft. This was the first parachute descent made in England. He landed near St. Pancras Church. Having eliminated the center vent for this jump, he again suffered a fit of vomiting. *TIS See**

In 1797

In 1797

**1850**Fechner’s law introduced. [Springer’s 1985 Statistics Calendar] A pioneering though in many situations incorrect formulation of the relationship between the physical strength of a stimulus and its strength as perceived by humans, proposed by G. T. Fechner in 1860. Fechner postulated that sensation increases as the log of the stimulus. For example, by Fechner's law, if light A was twice as bright as light B (measured by an instrument), it would appear to the human eye to be log 2 (times a constant to allow for such factors as the units used) brighter than light B. Later experiments have shown conclusively that the Fechner's law doesn't generally apply.

**1903**Simon Newcomb of Johns Hopkins decides to make it clear that aerial flight is impossible, less than two months before Kitty Hawk. "The Mathematicians of today admits that he can neither square the circle, or duplicate the cube, or trisect the angle. May not our mechanicians ... be ultimately forced to admit that aerial flight is one of the great class of problems with which man can never cope, and give up all attempts to grapple with it?"

**1908**First meeting of the Spanish Association for the Advancement of Science was held October 22–29. Sixteen papers were read in the section of mathematics.*VFR

**1933**The Solvay Congress in Brussells opens on 22 October, 1933 which was attended by leading Nuclear physicists around the world. Attendees included two future key Manhattan Project scientists (Fermi and Lawrence), the future head of the Nazi atomic bomb program (Heisenberg), and numerous leading pre-war physicists. Among the group, three women seated in the front row, from left to right, Irene Joliet-Curie, Marie Curie, and Lise Meitner. The meeting would last through the 29th of the month.*PB

**1938**In the back of a beauty shop in the Astoria section of Queens New York, Chester A. Carlson and his assistant Otto Kornei, conducted the ﬁrst successful experiment in electrophotography. The message, “10.-22.-38 ASTORIA,” was even less inspiring than Alexander Graham Bell’s ﬁrst phone conversation, but the effect was just as great. In 1949 Haloid Corporation marketed the Xerox Model A, a crude machine that required fourteen manual operations. Today ﬁve million copiers churn out 2,000 copies each year for every American citizen. *VFR

Evelyn (Boka) Van Orden Sent me a followup note, “On the 75th anniversary of Xerography — October 22, 2013 — I was privileged to attend an event titled "Chester Chester Chester" at Xerox PARC.”

George Shea first stumbled on Chester Carlson in 1981 when he came upon a passage about the little known inventor (even today, most Americans have never heard of Carlson) in an obscure book on the subject of "Copy Art."

George was fascinated by the tale of struggle, patience, late success, and spiritual enlightenment and began digging into Carlson's life. In 1988 he visited the former janitor's closet in Astoria in which Carlson made the world's first xerograhic copy on Oct. 22, 1938. The ceiling still displayed obvious sulfur stains from Chester’s and Otto Kornei’s experiments.

**1975**the Soviet unmanned space mission Venera 9 lands on Venus. measurements taken included surface pressure of about 9,100 kilopascals (90 atm), temperature of 485 °C (905 °F), and surface light levels comparable to those at Earth mid-latitudes on a cloudy summer day. *the painter flynn

**1511 Erasmus Reinhold**(October 22, 1511 – February 19, 1553) was a German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation. He was born and died in Saalfeld, Saxony.

He was educated, under Jacob Milich, at the University of Wittenberg, where he was first elected dean and later became rector. In 1536 he was appointed professor of higher mathematics by Philipp Melanchthon. In contrast to the limited modern definition, "mathematics" at the time also included applied mathematics, especially astronomy. His colleague, Georg Joachim Rheticus, also studied at Wittenberg and was appointed professor of lower mathematics in 1536.

Reinhold catalogued a large number of stars. His publications on astronomy include a commentary (1542, 1553) on Georg Purbach's Theoricae novae planetarum. Reinhold knew about Copernicus and his heliocentric ideas prior to the publication of De revolutionibus and made a favorable reference to him in his commentary on Purbach. However, Reinhold (like other astronomers before Kepler and Galileo) translated Copernicus' mathematical methods back into a geocentric system, rejecting heliocentric cosmology on physical and theological grounds.

It was Reinhold's heavily annotated copy of De revolutionibus in the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh that started Owen Gingerich on his search for copies of the first and second editions which he describes in The Book Nobody Read. In Reinhold's unpublished commentary on De revolutionibus, he calculated the distance from the Earth to the sun. He "massaged" his calculation method in order to arrive at an answer close to that of Ptolemy.*Wik

**1587 Joachim Jungius**(22 Oct 1587 in Lübeck, Germany - 23 Sept 1657 in Hamburg) a German mathematician who was one of the first to use exponents to represent powers and who used mathematics as a model for the natural sciences. Jungius proved that the catenary is not a parabola (Galileo assumed it was). *SAU (I can not find the first use by Jungius anywhere, but Cajori gives Descartes 1637 use in Geometrie as the first example of the common form today. A year earlier, James Hume produced a copy of Viete's Algebra in which he used exponents as powers of numbers, but his exponents were Roman Numerals.)[Nicolas Chuquet (1445-1488) was the first to use numbers as exponents, and the first to use negative numbers as exponents, but didn't use raised -1 for inverse.]

**1659 Georg Ernst Stahl**(22 October 1659 – 24 May 1734) was a German chemist, physician and philosopher. He was a supporter of vitalism, and until the late 18th century his works on phlogiston were accepted as an explanation for chemical processes

Stahl used the works of Johann Joachim Becher to help him come up with explanations of chemical phenomena. The main theory that Stahl got from J. J. Becher was the theory of phlogiston. This theory did not have any experimental basis before Stahl. He was able to make the theory applicable to chemistry.Becher's theories attempted in explaining chemistry as comprehensively as seemingly possible through classifying different earths according to specific reactions. Terra pinguis was a substance that escaped during combustion reactions, according to Becher.[10] Stahl, influenced by Becher's work, developed his theory of phlogiston.People who dismiss Phlogiston theory as early ignorance should read The Renaissance Mathematicus blog, The Phlogiston Theory – Wonderfully wrong but fantastically fruitful.

**1792 Guillaume-Joseph-Hyacinthe-Jean-Baptiste Le Gentil de la Galaziere**(12 Sep 1725; 22 Oct 1792) was a French astronomer who attempted to observe the transit of Venus across the sun by travelling to India in 1761. He failed to arrive in time due to an outbreak of war. He stayed in India to see the next transit which came eight years later. This time, he was denied a view because of cloudy weather, and so returned to France. There, he found his heirs had assumed he was dead and taken his property.*TIS A more detailed blog about his life is at Renaissance Mathematicus

1843 John S Mackay graduated from St Andrews University and taught at Perth Academy and Edinburgh Academy. He was a founder member of the EMS and became the first President in 1883 and an honorary member in 1894. He published numerous papers on Geometry in the EMS Proceedings.*SAU

**1881 Clinton Joseph Davisson**(22 Oct 1881; 1 Feb 1958) American experimental physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1937 with George P. Thomson of England for discovering that electrons can be diffracted like light waves. Davisson studied the effect of electron bombardment on surfaces, and observed (1925) the angle of reflection could depend on crystal orientation. Following Louis de Broglie's theory of the wave nature of particles, he realized that his results could be due to diffraction of electrons by the pattern of atoms on the crystal surface. Davisson worked with Lester Germer in an experiment in which electrons bouncing off a nickel surface produced wave patterns similar to those formed by light reflected from a diffraction grating, and supporting de Broglie's electron wavelength = (h/p). *TIS

**1895 Rolf Herman Nevanlinna**(22 October 1895 – 28 May 1980) was one of the most famous Finnish mathematicians. He was particularly appreciated for his work in complex analysis.Rolf Nevanlinna's most important mathematical achievement is the value distribution theory of meromorphic functions. The roots of the theory go back to the result of Émile Picard in 1879, showing that a complex-valued function which is analytic in the entire complex plane assumes all complex values save at most one.*Wik

**1905 Karl Guthe Jansky**(22 Oct 1905; 14 Feb 1950) was an American electrical engineer who discovered cosmic radio emissions in 1932. At Bell Laboratories in NJ, Jansky was tracking down the crackling static noises that plagued overseas telephone reception. He found certain radio waves came from a specific region on the sky every 23 hours and 56 minutes, from the direction of Sagittarius toward the center of the Milky Way. In the publication of his results, he suggested that the radio emission was somehow connected to the Milky Way and that it originated not from stars but from ionized interstellar gas. At the age of 26, Jansky had made a historic discovery - that celestial bodies could emit radio waves as well as light waves. *TIS Image: Karl Jansky makes adjustments to his antenna *Wik

**1907 Sarvadaman D. S. Chowla**(22 October 1907, London–10 December 1995, Laramie, Wyoming) was a prominent Indian mathematician, specializing in number theory. Among his contributions are a number of results which bear his name. These include the Bruck–Chowla–Ryser theorem, the Ankeny–Artin–Chowla congruence, the Chowla–Mordell theorem, and the Chowla–Selberg formula, and the Mian–Chowla sequence.*Wik

**1916 Nathan Jacob Fine**(22 October 1916 in Philadelphia, USA - 18 Nov 1994 in Deerfield Beach, Florida, USA) He published on many different topics including number theory, logic, combinatorics, group theory, linear algebra, partitions and functional and classical analysis. He is perhaps best known for his book Basic hypergeometric series and applications published in the Mathematical Surveys and Monographs Series of the American Mathematical Society. The material which he presented in the Earle Raymond Hedrick Lectures twenty years earlier form the basis for the material in this text.*SAU

**1927 Alexander Ivanovich Skopin**(22 Oct 1927 in Leningrad (now St Petersburg), Russia - 15 Sept 2003 in St Petersburg, Russia) He was a Russian mathematician known for his contributions to abstract algebra. Skopin's student work was in abstract algebra, and concerned upper central series of groups and extensions of fields. In the 1970s, Skopin received a second doctorate concerning the application of computer algebra systems to group theory. From that point onward he used computational methods extensively in his research, which focused on lower central series of Burnside groups. He related this problem to problems in other areas of mathematics including linear algebra and topological sorting of graphs. *Wik

**1941 Stanley Mazor**was born in Chicago on October 22, 1941. He studied mathematics and programming at San Francisco State University. He joined Fairchild Semiconductor in 1964 as a programmer and then a computer designer in the Digital Research Department where he shares patents on the Symbol computer. In 1969, he joined Intel. In 1977, he began his teaching career in Intel's Technical Training group, and later taught classes at Stanford, University of Santa Clara, KTH in Stockholm and Stellenbosch, S.A. In 1984 he was at Silicon Compiler Systems. He co-authored a book on chip design language while at Synopsys 1988-1994. He was invited to present The History of the Microcomputer at the 1995 IEEE Proceedings. He is currently the Training Director at BEA Systems. *CHM

**1950 Ada Isabel Maddison**(13 April 1869 in Cumberland, England - 22 Oct 1950 in Martin's Dam, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA) A British mathematician best known for her work on differential equations. Although Maddison passed an honors exam for the University of Cambridge, she was not given a degree there. Instead, she went to Bryn Mawr in Pennsylvania. In 1893, the University of London awarded her a bachelor's degree in mathematics with honors. After further study at the University of Göttingen, Maddison went back to Bryn Mawr, where she taught as well as doing time consuming administrative work. Her will endowed a pension fund for Bryn Mawr's administrative staff.*Wik

**1977 Beniamino Segre**(16 February 1903 – 2 October 1977) was an Italian mathematician who is remembered today as a major contributor to algebraic geometry and one of the founders of combinatorial geometry. Among his main contributions to algebraic geometry are studies of birational invariants of algebraic varieties, singularities and algebraic surfaces. His work was in the style of the old Italian School, although he also appreciated the greater rigor of modern algebraic geometry. Another contribution of his was the introduction of finite and non-continuous structures into geometry. In his best known paper he proved the following theorem: In a Desarguesian plane of odd order, the ovals are exactly the irreducible conics. Some critics felt that his work was no longer geometry, but today it is recognized as a separate sub-discipline: combinatorial geometry.

In 1938 he lost his professorship as a result of the anti-Jewish laws enacted under Benito Mussolini's government; he spent the next 8 years in Great Britain (mostly at the University of Manchester), then returned to Italy to resume his academic career *Wik

**1979 Reinhold Baer**(22 July 1902 in Berlin, Germany - 22 Oct 1979 in Zurich, Switzerland) Baer's mathematical work was wide ranging; topology, abelian groups and geometry. His most important work, however, was in group theory, on the extension problem for groups, finiteness conditions, soluble and nilpotent groups. *SAU

Credits :

*CHM=Computer History Museum

*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts

*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar

*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie

*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History

*TIA = Today in Astronomy

*TIS= Today in Science History

*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA

*Wik = Wikipedia

*WM = Women of Mathematics, Grinstein & Campbell

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