## Wednesday 5 October 2022

### As to the American usage, taking a billion to mean a thousand million and running the subsequent names by thousands, it should be said that this is due in part to French influence after the Revolutionary War, although our earliest native American arithmetic, the Greenwood book of 1729, gave the billion as 109, the trillion as 1012, and so on. Names for large numbers were the fashion in early days, Pike’s well-known arithmetic (1788), for example, proceeding to duodecillions before taking up addition.

Decillion occurs in English in 1847.

Centillionen is found in German in 1740 in Biblischer Geographus by Johann J. Schmidt: “Was wirds nun helfen, die Zahlen so zu häufen, daß man sie mit Centillionen aussprechen könnte; wer wird denn einen Verstand hergeben, der sie begreift?”

Centilion (spelled this way) is found in English in 1754 in The Gentleman’s Magazine.

Centillion is found in English in 1863 in The Normal: or, Methods of Teaching the Common Branches, Orthoepy, Orthography, Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic and Elocution by Alfred Holbrook
In Many South Asian numbering system, 10^9 is known as 100 crore or 1 arab.  in Japanese 10,000 is a common base, and above this they normally use
10,000: ichi-man 「1万」
100,000: juu-man 「10万」
1,000,000: hyaku-man (one million) 「100万」
10,000,000: issen-man 「1000万」.

### *(Wikipedia, Jeff Miller, PB notes)

Chaos Although the ideas of chaos theory as we know it today have been actively studied at some level for most of the 20th century, the word as a mathematical term dates only from an article in American Mathematical Monthly in 1975, "Period Three Implies Chaos". The Greek root khaox was for an empty space. This meaning still persists in archaic usage where it refers to a canyon or abyss. The evolution of the word to mean disorder seems to come from reference to the time before God created the universe. The empty space was with out order and the creation filled the emptiness and created order.

more common form of the word exists today, but few people are aware of the connection. At the start of the 17th century, a Flemish scientist named Jan Baptist van Helmont was studying the bubbles that rise when fruit juice was allowed to stand. These strange vapors, without shape or form, reminded him of the Greek idea of Chaos, so he called them by the Germanic (Flemish is a dialect of German) spelling of chaos, gas.

The physical objects formed out of the void were called the cosmos, the Greeks word for orderly or well formed. Today we often hear people refer to the Universe as the cosmos. When Robert Milliken, the American physicist, sought a term for the radiation that seemed to be coming from everywhere in the universe (the cosmos) he suggested the name Cosmic Rays . Today the word cosmos also remains as the root of words like cosmopolitan and cosmetics.